Perspectivas e intereses en la construcción de normas de salud ocupacional: el caso de las nanopartículas de plata

Resumo

Introducción: La regulación de substancias químicas envuelve una difícil negociación entre actores sociales, y requiere de la articulación entre el análisis científico y su conversión en norma jurídica. Objetivo: El artículo aborda la discusión suscitada por la consulta pública sobre una propuesta de guía voluntaria de regulación de nanopartículas de plata (AgNP) en locales de trabajo en los Estados Unidos. Se examinan los comentarios realizados entre 2016 y 2018 por diversos actores sociales – representantes de empresas, organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG) e investigadores independientes – a dos versiones sucesivas de borrador de Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) en ambientes de trabajo con AgNP. Se trata de una guía voluntaria de
límites de exposición permisibles elaborada por el NIOSH de los Estados Unidos. Una guía de esta naturaleza combina información científica con su ajuste jurídico. Método: La metodología utilizada fue un análisis de contenido de los comentarios, estructurado a partir de la contextualización histórica y sociotécnica de las nanotecnologías realizada mediante revisión de literatura y análisis documental. Resultados: El artículo muestra la manera como los diferentes actores sociales se situaron en la controversia sobre los riesgos de la nanoplata, develando un patrón de comportamiento que es acorde con la posición que tienen en el proceso de investigación, producción y comercialización de este nuevo nanomaterial. Mientras un conjunto de actores, que responde a los intereses de los productores de AgNP, propuso restringir medidas regulatorias obligatorias y específicas para AgNP, otro grupo de actores, más heterogéneo, identificado con los intereses de trabajadores y consumidores, demandó ampliar la información científico-técnica y exigió medidas de protección a la salud más estrictas. Conclusiones: Entre estas posiciones divergentes, la agencia regulatoria se comportó de forma transparente y receptiva al conducir la consulta pública y modificó substancialmente los límites de exposición a las AgNP propuestos originalmente.

Biografia do Autor

Guillermo Foladori, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (UAZ), Zacatecas

Possui graduação em antropologia social - Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia -México- (1975), mestrado em Antropología Social - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (1979) e doutorado em Economia - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (1985). Tem experiência na área de Ciências Sociais, com ênfase em Sociologia do Meio Ambiente, e Nanotecnologia e Sociedade. Temas de atuação: meio ambiente, desenvolvimento sustentável, saúde, nanotecnologias. E membro do Sistema Nacional de Investigadores de Conacyt, México, e da Rede Latinoamericana de Nanotecnologia e Sociedade. Tem sido consultor da OIT, BID e diversas ONGs.

Noela Invernizzi, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, PR

É professora do Setor de Educação e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Formou-se em Antropologia na Universidade da República, Uruguai, e fez mestrado e doutorado em Política Científica e Tecnológica na Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Fez estágio de pós-doutorado no Center for Science, Policy and Outcomes, da Universidade de Columbia, EUA. Foi professora do Programa em Estudos do Desenvolvimento da Universidade Autônoma de Zacatecas, México; pesquisadora visitante no Center for Science, Policy and Outcomes, EUA; e Fellow no Science, Technology and Innovation Program do Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, EUA. Por vários anos tem pesquisado sobre os impactos da reestruturação industrial e a introdução de novas tecnologias sobre a força de trabalho. Atualmente investiga a política de ciència, tecnologia e inovação na área de nanotecnologia e as implicações sociais dessa tecnologia. Coordena a Rede Latino-Americana Nanotecnologia e Sociedade. É vice coordenadora do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas. 

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Publicado
2019-05-31
Como Citar
Foladori, G., & Invernizzi, N. (2019). Perspectivas e intereses en la construcción de normas de salud ocupacional: el caso de las nanopartículas de plata. Vigilância Sanitária Em Debate: Sociedade, Ciência & Tecnologia, 7(2), 28-36. https://doi.org/10.22239/2317-269x.01257
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